There is a correlation between the sex and gender roles of men and women as per the societal and cultural expectations. This basically deals with ensuring that gender needs of men and women are met in a manner that is far and just. In the past, there were specific roles for men and women. However, the trends are changing.
The socialization process begins at birth and total compliance is expected from both genders. Race, gender and ethnic groups: There are different expectations for different genders. Family, marriage and gender roles: How families and marriage relate to gender roles Gender roles and literature: How literature depicts women and men Gender roles and sports: The different games and roles played by men and women Infanticide: It is a gender issue that affects women Political affiliations: The roles and positions of women and men in the political arena Gender inequalities: Gender inequalities exist in all spheres of life.
Gender stereotype is basically the overgeneralization of characteristics of a group based on their gender. Such changes also threaten many women who have accepted more traditional roles and see change as a threat. I think time are harder for women these days. Many of these women were ladies of means and social position in society: The main burden of their argument was that woman suffrage placed an additional and unbearable burden on women, whose place was in the home.
The fact is that the family has changed and that the traditional family structure of homemaker, husband as breadwinner, and children bow constitutes only 10 percent of families. The role for women has expanded with more women in the workplace and with a variety of family structures with new roles for all members of the family.
There is much evidence that boys and girls are treated differently form birth, and this fact has been noted in every world culture: It may never be possible to separate out the precise effects of physiology and cultural conditioning on human beings.
To accord with the reality of this complex interplay of factors, and to accord with an increasingly complex external world, feminists ask simply for options in life styles.
Those stuck in sexism, however, cannot grant even the simple request to ask why women are inferior. The reason sexism exists at all is because of an acculturation process which subtly creates it, and it is perpetuated in part for that reason and also because perceived changes in the roles and status of women create a backlash based on fear of change.
Surveys have shown that identical resumes or scholarly articles are rated lower if the applicant is though to be a woman rather than a man: Women who do not advance only confirm the stereotype for others: In either event, they do not seem to warrant the same investment in training, assistance, and promotion opportunities as their male counterparts.
Feminist theorists have been calling for some time for a change in the political climate. They want more than just more women in office and the political arena; they want a new type of political thinking, one that empowers people rather than government and that addresses the issues that are of importance to men and women: This new human liberation will enable us to take back the day and the night, and use the precious and limited resources of our earth and the limitless resources of our human capital to erect new kinds of homes for all our dreams.
The perception the public has had on the role of men and women is outdated and has been for some time, but public attitudes change slowly even in the face of overwhelming evidence.
More than 40 years ago, anthropologist Margaret Mead noted the way the West had developed its concept of male and female: There has long been a habit in Western civilization of men to have a picture of womanhood to which women reluctantly conformed, and for women to make demands on man to which men adjusted even more reluctantly. This has been a accurate picture of the way in which we have structured our society, with women as keepers of the house who insist that the man wipe their feet on the door-mat, and men as keepers of women in the house who insist that their wives should stay modestly indoors.
Today, people are far less willing to accept these artificial roles even reluctantly, and this includes the provision keeping women in the home and out of the public arena. To have more women in office it is necessary to have more women run. As noted, public views change more slowly than the reality of gender roles.
They will continue to change slowly as long as we continue acculturating children with the same sexual stereotypes that have so long prevailed. It is necessary that we address this issue from early childhood, with parents demonstrating a different view of gender and sexual roles just as the school and church should take a part in eliminating the old stereotypes in favor of a more reasonable and equitable way to view both men and women.
Gender roles Essay, term paper, research paper: Gender See all college papers and term papers on Gender. Need a different custom essay on Gender? Buy a custom essay on Gender. Need a custom research paper on Gender? Click here to buy a custom term paper. Some studies also investigated differences related to socioeconomic status SES and demographic differences related to geography typically urban versus rural populations.
These studies that simply mentioned the demographic characteristics of their sample in the abstract e. Thus our figures might somewhat underestimate the presence of culture as a theme in Sex Roles articles. Articles in the Media category involved a number of types of media i. Published articles concerning media or books were consistently present in the journal and appeared to increase in number in the s and s see Table 2.
The form of media most frequently represented involved books, and these most often dealt with the portrayals of females and males. However, in the last two decades, articles appeared that explored new media including the content of computer applications, the internet, and video games.
A few other articles examined diverse content, including consumer product packaging e. On the whole, research in this category confirmed the idea that the books and media that children are exposed to present highly stereotyped portrayals of men and women, and women are often under-represented in stereotypically male roles e. This broad and diverse category captured a somewhat surprisingly large percentage of articles, especially in the s See Table 2. The size of this category was partly due to the number of studies investigating topics related to psychological adjustment, including general measures of adjustment, such as self-esteem, as well as symptoms of psychopathology.
These topics are of obvious relevance to gender development, but have been less frequently studied than core aspects of gender identity and gender-related beliefs, perceptions, and behaviors. Nonetheless, implications related to adjustment have been a driving force of research in gender development and have been important to theories of gender development.
Indeed, a central concern of researchers dating back to Kagan and Bem , has been the implications of gender-typing and cross-gender-typing on adjustment. More recently, researchers have investigated adjustment outcomes in relation to multiple dimensions of gender identity for a review, see Lurye et al.
For instance, research by Perry and his colleagues has found that felt pressure to adhere to gender norms is associated with lower self-worth Egan and Perry Thus, current research on adjustment appears to be a focus on aspects of gender that lead to good or poor adjustment outcomes. Several other topics included in this category because of their relevance to adjustment were Gender Identity Disorder and eating disorders and body issues.
The number of articles addressing Gender Identity Disorder was extremely small and only appeared in the s. Given the controversies about the causes and consequences of extreme gender non-normative behavior e. The studies in this category also reflect topics related to eating disorders, body satisfaction, and body size or Body Mass Index BMI.
These topics have received much attention in the public media and are of clear relevance to gender development. Publications that focused on various dimensions of personality and individual differences were also coded into this category.
This was perhaps the most dated concept we came across and its disappearance after the s is indicative of social changes. A number of articles included in this category also addressed topics more closely related to sexuality, sexual maturation, and male-female relationships, including sexual behaviors, dating, menarche, sexual orientation, and sexual harassment.
These topics have not been very well integrated into the gender development literature and sexual identity in particular tends to be very specialized and focused on sexual minorities Diamond Thus, greater consideration of issues of sexual identity and sexual and romantic relationships would provide a more complete understanding of gender development.
Thus far, we have primarily focused on the topics and theories that have dominated the literature and been most visible in this journal. However, gaps in the literature were found and are important to consider as they help identify future directions for researchers. There were gaps in the ages of children studied. Few studies in our content analysis of articles published in Sex Roles involved research on infants and toddlers. The lack of infant and toddler research may be due to in part to challenges associated with testing very young children.
However, researchers now have access to a variety of methods available to them for observing and analyzing behavioral data, thus freeing researchers from having to rely on self-report and parent reported data on children, and expanding options for studying children who are too young to follow complex procedures or report on their own thoughts and behaviors.
Given that children demonstrate a range of gender-typed behaviors, preferences, and knowledge by 2—3 years of age, if not earlier, it behooves investigators to expand efforts to better understand the earliest stages of gender development. Gaps were also noted in the types of methods utilized in studies. Self-report measures were the most frequently used method of data collection.
These qualities are certainly strengths of direct self-reports. However, weaknesses and limitations also exist as is the case with any method and differences in methods may contribute to lack of coherence in findings. For example, Eisenberg and colleagues Eisenberg and Lennon ; Fabes and Eisenberg found that gender differences in empathy and sympathy varied with the method used to assess empathy-related responding. No gender differences were found when the measure of empathy was either physiological or unobtrusive observations of nonverbal behavior.
Eisenberg and Lennon suggested that the general pattern of results was due to differences among measures in the degree to which the intent of the measure was obvious and people could control their responses. Gender differences were greatest when demand characteristics were high i.
In contrast, gender differences were virtually nonexistent when demand characteristics were subtle and study participants were unlikely to exercise much conscious control over their responding i. Thus, when gender-related stereotypes are activated and people can easily control their responses, they may try to project a socially desirable image to others or to themselves.
Such findings call for the greater use of multiple methods in research published in Sex Roles and elsewhere to ascertain whether this pattern exists in our research and certainly argues for less sole reliance on self-report methods. There is some evidence that such a change is beginning to happen.
For example, our analysis revealed a slight increase in studies employing time and labor intensive methods that allow for the discovery and analysis of the more subtle and complex aspects of behavior, such as the coding of transcriptions and videotaped and real-time observation, and qualitative methods. Such methods allow for a more micro-analytic examination of the dynamics of behavioral interactions but also take considerable time and effort to code, manage, and analyze.
The investigation of changing patterns of behaviors in large-scale observational or longitudinal studies may require dynamical analyses that may be unfamiliar to many gender researchers Martin and Ruble Moreover, a fair amount of debate has surrounded the value and limitations of qualitative methods, though there is now growing consensus that empirical and qualitative methods each have advantages and disadvantages and can be used to complement each other e.
There were also a number of gaps in the content of the articles. Overall, it seems that the emphasis in the gender development publications in Sex Roles has been on the development of different gender-linked abilities and traits, often in the areas of academic and career-related choices and skills.
These aspects of gender development make up only a small portion of the Matrix of Gender-Typing Ruble et al. Some of these aspects might be less salient or more difficult to measure e.
Further research is also needed to better understand the relations among the various cells in the matrix and how such relations might change across development. Despite the prevalence of articles addressing socialization, our analysis of this category indicated that research in this area has been heavily slated toward investigating the role of parents. Less attention was focused on peers in the articles we reviewed in Sex Roles.
Nonetheless, there has been greater focus on peers in the more recent literature. This research activity may have been facilitated by the recognition of peer influences earlier in development e.
Furthermore, relatively little research has focused on the ways in which gender affects relationships and communication with peers and might impact same- and other-gender relationships across time into adulthood. In our analysis, studies that did involve relationship processes tended to focus on adolescents and addressed specific relationship contexts and issues, such as dating and sexual harassment. Few studies focused on assessing cognitions or beliefs about relationships.
There is a need for theory to better understand the dynamics and development of male-female and same-gender relationships over time Zosuls et al. Intergroup attitudes and behaviors have been of longstanding interest to gender researchers coming from a social psychological perspective e. Once again, however, it could be the case that studies focused on Intergroup Processes appear in journals that more specifically address these topics e.
Furthermore, relatively little is known about how children may or may not perceive gender discrimination directed at others or themselves for an exception, see Brown and Bigler , Our analysis also suggested that even less is known about the impact on gender development of socialization messages children receive from features of the larger socio-cultural context, such as the media.
Furthermore, although a number of studies investigated features of media that children are exposed to, few examined whether children perceive media messages in the ways that they are presented and assumed to be processed by adults. In the majority of studies of socialization, investigators have often worked under the assumption that gender-related features of the environment are relatively passively encoded by children, rather than actively processed.
Future research should aim to test these assumptions. The Gender Identity and Adjustment and Individual Differences categories reflected growth and evolution in theories and topics addressed by the literature, but also suggested the need for further integration of these topics into core theories and research.
Both categories featured a number of studies addressing the topic of body image; however, this aspect of identity is not usually included in models and measures related to various aspects of gender identity, such as gender typicality e. Rather, body image is generally discussed in terms of its relation to psychological adjustment e. Finally, the vast majority of studies addressed cognitive and socialization processes. Only one published study directly focused on biological ideas about gender development Rodgers et al.
Indeed, the name of this journal— Sex Roles —emphasizes roles, which connotes socially learned and prescribed behaviors. Research studies investigating of biological factors, such as hormones, also tend to be complex and expensive and are conducted by a relatively small group of investigators interested in gender development e. Nonetheless, research involving a biological perspective has gained momentum in recent decades and would be a valuable addition to the body of research represented in Sex Roles.
Looking forward, as gender development researchers and contributors to Sex Roles , we should also consider what areas of research are most important to address given current inequalities, societal problems, and shifting cultural and demographic features of society and the endpoints we are interested in achieving for future generations of girls and boys.
Social issues concerning educational practices and improving school outcomes have become gendered discussions Does the gender gap in education now favor girls? Should single-sex education be encouraged or discouraged? Changes in media also provide new areas for research investigation. For instance, the ubiquity of and interest in social networking for adolescents suggests that researchers should consider how virtual, immediate, and potentially continuous social connections among adolescents influences personal and social dimensions of gender development.
Biological and cultural changes suggest how the lines between adolescence and younger ages are becoming blurred. The earlier ages of puberty and increased sexualization of young girls are examples of topics that require additional research attention American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls In this paper, our primary goal was to describe trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles over the past few decades.
Overall, the topics receiving the greatest emphasis—Gender Differences, Socialization, and Stereotyping, and to a somewhat lesser degree, Gender Identity—were relatively stable over time. The prevalence of articles documenting gender differences is logical given that gender differences—whether real or perceived, small or large in magnitude—was the starting point of interest for which the field came into existence and that many researchers are ultimately interested in explaining.
Gender development has progressed a long way from the initial study of gender differences, and has continued to move forward steadily. Leaders in the field have encouraged increasingly precise and clear terminology, more sophisticated methods and analytic techniques, and a greater diversity of topics of study. Assumptions made about one domain of gender development predicting all others have been questioned, and the multidimensionality of gender has been highlighted, as evidenced here in the many topics covered by researchers.
Sex Roles has played an important role in the growth of the field by providing an outlet dedicated to disseminating research on the wide array of topics associated with gender development. In the next 35 years, our hope is that the journal will continue to play a leadership role in the field, and to promote more diversity in topics, methods, and ages employed in gender development research.
Denny Sanford Foundation also supported work on this paper. To determine inclusion, we used several parameters. In addition to including studies that had children as direct participants, we also included studies that had children or child development as the targets of study e. Third, studies with a primary purpose of reporting the psychometric properties of a measure developed for and used with children were also included.
We excluded studies that were based on a college student sample or that included participants 17 years and older if the primary purpose of the study did not concern adolescence. Moreover, we did not include retrospective studies, and we did not include non-empirical theoretical and review papers. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Author manuscript; available in PMC Dec 1. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract The late s through the s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research in gender development. Gender development, Children, History, Review.
Milestones in the Study of Gender Development The late s through the s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research. Current Theoretical Trends and Debates The field of gender development has been dominated by a few prevailing theoretical perspectives that have driven progress and debate in the field. Gender Development Research in Sex Roles There is no doubt that the historic changes described above have influenced the research that appears in our scholarly journals.
Identifying Patterns in Sex Roles Articles To accomplish our goals, we reviewed all articles published in Sex Roles since through and identified abstracts of Sex Roles articles that specifically focused on children and child development for further inclusion criteria, see Appendix A. Open in a separate window. Percentage of articles by decade using each type of methodology.
Issues of Terminology One of the most challenging aspects of classifying the articles was deciphering the meaning of some terms. Content of Gender Development Research in Sex Roles In this section, we examine the content of articles in Sex Roles and how it relates to the field more broadly.
Table 1 Classification of articles in the matrix of gender-typing Ruble et al. Content area Construct Total A. Concepts or beliefs B. Identity or self-perception C. Activities and interests 2A. Gender-based social relationships 4A. Styles and symbols 5A. Values regarding gender 6A. Table 2 Topic categories by decade: Topics that have Maintained Consistent Interest Over Time A number of topic areas received consistent research attention across time.
Gender Differences The most frequent category appearing across all years was Gender Differences an article was coded into the Gender Differences category when the abstract mentioned a comparison between girls and boys in a specific area. Socialization Over time, an average of about one-third of the articles in Sex Roles were focused on gender socialization see Table 2 , and almost half of these articles focused on socialization by parents.
Gender Identity Gender Identity was also a consistently appearing topic category across the decades. Topics that Showed Changes Over Time Although we did not observe any dramatic changes in coverage of the various topics across decades, some did evidence an increase in research attention over time.
Increased Cross-cultural Research One of the more noticeable changes across decades was an increase in publications in Sex Roles categorized as Cross-Cultural in the s see Table 2. Increased Attention to Media Articles in the Media category involved a number of types of media i. Increased Attention to Individual Differences and Adjustment This broad and diverse category captured a somewhat surprisingly large percentage of articles, especially in the s See Table 2.
Neglected Topics and Gaps in the Literature Thus far, we have primarily focused on the topics and theories that have dominated the literature and been most visible in this journal. Summary and Conclusion In this paper, our primary goal was to describe trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles over the past few decades.
Appendix A To determine inclusion, we used several parameters. Contributor Information Kristina M. Report of the APA task force on the sexualization of girls. American Psychological Association; Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Bandura A, Bussey K. On broadening the cognitive, motivational, and sociostructural scope of theorizing about gender development and functioning:
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